Home – Laws of Religion, Judaism and Islam

 

Next – 4. Filth from Bodily Emissions

 

Table of Contents – Ritual Purity Laws of Islam

 

 

Laws of Religion

Laws of Islam Concerning Ritual Purity and Cleanliness

 

3.  Foods and Animal Materials that are Filth

 

from the Holy Qur’an, major hadith collections

and Islamic jurisprudence

 

 

Foods and Animal Materials that are Filth

From Islamic source documents: Qur’an and hadith

 

(Editor’s note: This page focuses specifically on issues related to food and animal materials that are filth. There is a section elsewhere on this website that fully discusses the Laws of Islam Concerning Food, including what types of food are prohibited and permitted for eating.)

 

The Qur’an says to purify one’s garments.[1]

 

Muhammad is quoted in the hadiths as giving many instructions designed to keep food clean and sanitary. He said that food and drinks should be covered and the mouths of waterskins should be tied[2] and, elsewhere, that these precautions should be taken specifically at night[3]. Even putting a stick over something is suggested if the food or drink is not actually covered.[4] Alternative explanations given for protecting food and drink in this way are that it is necessary to prevent a pestilence which occurs one night a year[5] and that it is necessary to keep out devils which lurk at night[6]. Satan, it is said, does not uncover containers of food or drink or loosen the strings on waterskins.[7]

 

If a mouthful of food is dropped, any filth should be removed and then the food eaten rather than leaving it for Satan.[8] Muhammad said that a fly that falls into a drink should be dipped in it so that any disease contained in one wing will be cured by the other.[9] When a mouse fell in butterfat and died, Muhammad said to throw out the mouse and the butterfat around it but that the rest of the butterfat could be eaten.[10]

 

Muhammad forbade drinking directly from the mouth of a waterskin.[11] He said not to breathe into the drinking container when drinking.[12] It is reported that Muhammad, himself, used to take three breaths while drinking,[13] meaning that he drank in three gulps.[14]

 

As it is forbidden in the Qur’an to eat swine or dead meat,[15] so it is forbidden in the hadiths to sell swine or dead animals or the fat of dead animals (or, by implication, their meat) or to use such fat for any purpose, such as greasing boats and hides or burning for light[16]. (Dead meat is meat from a dead animal, meaning an animal that died other than by proper intentional slaughter or hunting.) Similarly, both the consumption[17] and sale[18] of intoxicating beverages is forbidden. Donkey meat is also said, by Muhammad, to be forbidden because donkeys eat filth,[19] their meat is loathsome and impure[20] and an evil of Satan's doing.[21]

 

The Qur’an explicitly permits the eating the fresh flesh of things from the sea[22] and from salt water or fresh water.[23] There is a story[24] of a huge fish, called Al-‘Anbar[25] or translated as “whale,”[26] that fed people for many days during a time of food shortage. Although some versions of the story say that this huge sea creature was dead when it was found,[27] Muhammad permitted its consumption and even ate some himself.[28]

 

While the Qur’an says to keep away from a woman who is menstruating,[29] Muhammad does not take a strict view of this matter. He would drink from the same cup as his menstruating wife and eat meat from a bone she had eaten from, even putting his mouth in the same place where hers had been.[30] In fact, he states that the only interaction that is prohibited with menstruating women is sexual intercourse. (Rules and restrictions concerning menstruating women from the Qu’ran and the hadith collections are described in detail on the page, “Laws of Islam Concerning Ritual Purity and Cleanliness/6. Impurity Requiring a Bath of Purification.”)

 

When Muhammad was alive, dogs would go in and out of the mosques. No one would sprinkle or wash the spots where they urinated.[31]

 

Angels do not enter a house in which there is a dog (or a picture)[32] or accompany a traveler with a dog.[33]

 

A dog or a donkey blocks prayer when it passes in front of a person praying – between the person and the qibla (the Ka'ba in Mecca, toward which a person prays.)[34] It is also stated that it is specifically only black dogs, which are devils, that block prayer.[35] Other hadiths imply that a donkey walking in front of a person who is praying does not block prayer.[36] A person can also block prayer by walking in front of another who is praying,[37] though it is also reported that Muhammad said that it is, specifically, women who block prayer.[38] However, Aisha, a wife of Muhammad, said that Muhammad would pray even when she was between him and the qibla.[39] Also, Muhammad prayed when carrying a girl[40] (indicating that her being between him and the qibla did not block the prayer). Some hadiths specifically say that a man walking in front of another who is praying blocks prayer[41]or that people in general can block prayer in this way.[42] An object (sutra) such a spear[43] or staff[44] implanted in the ground, a saddle,[45] a camel,[46] or anything else at least as large as the back of a saddle[47] in front of a person will prevent the blocking of prayer by dogs[48] (specifically black dogs)[49] donkeys,[50] unspecified animals,[51] or people,[52] (men[53] or women[54]) that pass in front of the person but with the sutra in between.

 

If a dog drinks from a container, it needs to be washed seven times before it is used.[55] Remedies prescribed if a dog licks a plate or a drink container are: throwing away what was in it[56] and washing it seven times before using it[57] – with sand the first time[58] – or, elsewhere, rubbing it with earth the eight time[59].

 

Anyone who keeps a dog will have his reward (after death) reduced unless the dog is used for protecting the cattle or the farm[60] or, alternatively, for protecting the herd or for hunting.[61]

 

Muhammad issued an order that all the dogs be killed[62] but then exempted those that protected the cattle[63] or those that protected large fields[64] or that were used for hunting.[65] In one version he rescinds the order except for black dogs having two spots, which are referred to as devils.[66]

 

Before any mosques were constructed, Muhammad would pray where the sheep[67] or goats[68] were kept. (Editor's note: Thus it was appropriate for him to pray in the presence of these animals and their urine and feces.) Muhammad said that prayer is permitted where the sheep are kept but not where camels lie down.[69] When Muhammad's enemies saw him prostrated in prayer at the Ka'ba, they put camel dung, blood and intestinal matter on his back. He remained prostrated in prayer until his daughter, Fatima, removed the filth from him.[70] (Editor's note: This implies that even the filth from the bodies of camels was not an impediment to his prayer.) Other hadiths say it was the fetus of a camel that was put upon Muhammad’s back.[71]

 

Muhammad prescribed camel milk and urine[72] or only camel milk[73] as medicine. In other hadiths, he sends the ailing people to the camels and they drink the milk and urine as medicine without explicitly being told to do so by Muhammad.[74] The original Muslims would treat themselves with camel urine.[75]

 

Muhammad said that it is permitted to use the skin of a dead animal, such as a sheep or a goat, even though eating the flesh of such an animal is prohibited for eating.[76] (A dead animal is one that died other than by proper intentional slaughter or hunting.) In some hadiths, it is specified that the skin must be purified by tanning before it can be used.[77] One mentioned use of a tanned skin of a dead sheep is preparing a drink made with dates.[78] (Editor’s note: Thus, such skins can even be used to hold food.) Similarly, it is permitted to drink from skins of animals that were owned and slaughtered by Berbers or Magians if the skins are tanned to purify them.[79]

 

 

Foods and Animal Materials that are Filth

From Islamic Jurisprudence (fiqh§):  The Distinguished Jurist’s Primer of Ibn Rushd and Reliance of the Traveller

 

(Editor’s note: This page focuses specifically on issues related to food and animal materials that are filth. There is a section elsewhere on this website that fully discusses the Laws of Islam Concerning Food, including what types of food are prohibited and permitted for eating.)

 

Physical filth is different from ritual impurity.[80] Filth includes certain things that non-Muslims might eat but which are forbidden to Muslims. Filth also includes specified substances that come out of the bodies of humans or animals.

 

Filth or food that has become contaminated with filth is prohibited for eating according to most scholars* including Malik, Abu Hanifa, al-Shafi‛i and the Shafi‛i school.[81] While Abu Hanifa and al-Shafi‛i say that removal of filth from one’s body, one’s clothing and from the place of prayer is required for the validity of the prayer, Malik and his school say, in two different opinions, that such removal of filth is only a strong recommendation and that it is required only when a person remembers to do it.[82] According to Reliance of the Traveller (Shafi‛i school), having some filth on one's clothing is permitted when one it not praying.[83]

 

Abu Hanifa says that the minimum amount of filth that invalidates prayer is size of a particular coin – an impure dirham (one with mixed metals) – and that for light filth, such as the omnipresent feces of domesticated animals in the streets, the minimum amount that invalidates prayer is one-quarter of one's garment. Malik says that even the tiniest amount of filth invalidates prayer except that small amounts of blood are exempted. According to The Distinguished Jurist’s Primer, al-Shafi‛i says that any quantity of filth invalidates prayer.[84] However, Reliance of the Traveller, presenting the views of the Shafi‛i school, says that even large amounts of blood or pus from the person praying do not make prayer invalid, while blood or pus from other sources must be in small quantities, and other types of filth must be below readily visible amounts, to be considered negligible.[85]

 

Scholars agree that all flesh of swine is filth,[86] and the majority, including Malik, Abu Hanifa and al-Shafi‛i, agree that khamr (grape wine) is also filth.[87]

 

As discussed on the page under “Laws of Islam Concerning Food” on Rules Concerning Dead Meat, flesh from warm-blooded dead animals (meaning animals that died other than by proper intentional slaughter or hunting) not from the water is filth.[88] There is disagreement among scholars concerning other types of dead animals. Malik and Abu Hanifa say that the flesh of dead animals that lack blood is clean, but according to al-Shafi‛i and his school such flesh is filth except that things such as worms that may arise from edible food[89] or even from dead animals or from other filth are clean[90], as are locusts.[91] (See the hadith concerning a fly that fell into a drink, on this page above). As for dead animals that lived in water, Malik as well as al-Shafi‛i and his school say they are clean but Abu Hanifa disagrees.[92] A 20th century commentator quoted in the English translation of Reliance of the Traveller (Shafi‛i school) says that amphibians are considered non-aquatic and thus are filth if dead.[93]

 

Having the same legal status as dead meat is meat from animals that died as a result of strangulation, falling, being beaten, goring or being partially eaten by another animal[94] and also any part cut off from a living animal other than its hair.[95] (Dead meat is meat from a dead animal, meaning an animal that died other than by proper intentional slaughter or hunting.)

 

Blood that flows out of a non-aquatic animal is filth whether the animal is living or dead,[96] even if it is in the process of being properly slaughtered.[97] Blood coming from a living animal or a prohibited animal cannot be eaten in any quantity, no matter how small[98] but most scholars, including Malik, Abu Hanifa and al-Shafi‛i, say that in other cases small amounts of blood can be ignored.[99] Scholars disagree on whether blood in a ritually slaughtered animal that did not flow out of the animal is prohibited.[100] Al-Shafi‛i is among those who say that the blood of fish is clean, while some other scholars disagree.[101]

 

Summarizing from Reliance of the Traveller (Shafi‛i  school), things that non-Muslims might eat or use but which are filth (najasa) under the laws of Islam include: wine and all other liquid intoxicants; the milk and dead bodies of non-human animals forbidden for eating by Muslims, as well as the hair removed from such animals; and unslaughtered dead animals, including their hair, except for animals that live in water, locusts and humans. A translator's note at this point in Reliance of the Traveller says that perfumes or other cosmetics that contain alcohol are also classified as filth by the Shafi‛i school.[102]

 

Scholars* agree that forbidden foods, including wine, may be eaten when no permitted food is available, but they disagree about whether forbidden foods or wine may be consumed for medicinal, curative purposes.[103]

 

The flesh of animals that eat filth is prohibited for eating by al-Shafi‛i but it is only considered disapproved by Malik.[104]

 

In general, living things are clean except that some scholars classify swine, dogs, or animals that hunt others as filth.[105] For example, Malik says that dogs are clean but al-Shafi‛i says that since dog saliva is filth,[106] dogs, themselves, are filthy and cannot be eaten or benefited from.[107]

 

While scholars disagree about whether water left over from use by different people or animals is clean, it is agreed that water left over by Muslims or by cattle is clean. Abu Hanifa says that leftovers of all animals that Muslims are prohibited from eating, including dogs, are unclean. Al-Shafi‛i says that water left over only by swine and dogs is not clean. Malik maintains that water left over by dogs is clean, but must be discarded and its container washed – not because of filth, but only as a ritual act of worship.[108]

 

According to Reliance of the Traveller, the Shafi‛i school holds that both pigs and dogs are filth.[109] To clean an item made filthy by contact with a dog or pig, such as when one of these animals has licked something, it must be rinsed six times with water and one time with pure earth mixed with water. A translator's note at this point in Reliance of the Traveller says that in the Shafi‛i school filth is only transmitted from dogs or swine by a liquid, which may include saliva, urine or moisture on any part of their bodies.[110]

 

 Reliance of the Traveller also says that eating harmful things, like poison, glass or earth, is unlawful.[111] It also lists some things that are clean, rather than filth: rennet from a suckling lamb or kid that has consumed only milk and has been properly slaughtered[112] (which means that such rennet can be used to make cheese); eggs from any animal; the milk of animals permitted for eating if taken when the animal is alive or after it is properly slaughtered; and human milk.[113]

 

As discussed on the page under “Laws of Islam Concerning Food” on Rules Concerning Dead Meat, Abu Hanifa, al-Shafi‛i and other scholars* say that skins from unslaughtered dead animals are filth and cannot be used. According to Abu Hanifa, tanning makes the skin of any animal clean except swine, while al-Shafi‛i says that this effect of tanning is limited to the skins of animals that can be ritually slaughtered.[114] Reliance of the Traveller (Shafi‛i school) specifically mentions swine and dogs as animals whose skins cannot be purified by tanning.[115] Tanning means using an "acrid" substance to remove blood, fat, hair, etc., from a hide.[116] Leather from the hide of an animal not properly slaughtered can only be worn in case of pressing need.[117] (The translator of Reliance of the Traveller points out that this only refers to untanned hides.)

 

It is forbidden to sell anything that is filth, including khamr (grape wine), dead meat and swine. (Dead meat is meat from a dead animal, meaning an animal that died other than by proper intentional slaughter or hunting.) Scholars differ on whether dogs can be sold – Abu Hanifa says yes; al-Shafi‛i says no; and the followers of Malik say yes for dogs that can be legally owned, such as sheep dogs or farm dogs. There is also disagreement on whether human milk can be sold, with Malik and al-Shafi‛i saying that it can and Abu Hanifa saying that it cannot.[118] Reliance of the Traveller (Shafi‛i school) explains in detail that only clean and useful things can be sold or bought.[119] Specifically, filthy things (najasa), such as a dog (which is filth to the Shafi‛i) or anything else from which the filth cannot be purified, cannot be sold or bought.[120] Furthermore, something that is not useful cannot be sold or bought, including vermin, a single grain of wheat or an unlawful musical instrument.[121] However, if one of these unlawful transactions is made, it is valid and binding.[122]

 

________________

 

*Islamic scholars disagree on certain points of law based on different methodologies used in deriving the law from the Qur’an and the traditions (sunna) concerning the life of Muhammad and his closest companions, particularly as expressed in the compiled hadiths. There are four major schools of jurisprudence in Sunni Islam: the Maliki, the Hanafi, the Shafi‛i and the Hanbali. These names are derived from the individual scholars considered to have been the founders of each school: Malik, Abu Hanifa, al-Shafi‛i and Ahmad ibn Hanbal, respectively. The source texts we have used to prepare our summaries of Islamic jurisprudence contain the legal views of these different founders and schools, as described at Source Texts Used for Laws of Islam.

 

§The more general term sharia is often used loosely to mean the specific derived laws of fiqh, such as those summarized here.

 

________________

 

Laws of Religion is a project of the Religion Research Society.

 

Updated October 14, 2016

 

Home – Laws of Religion, Judaism and Islam

 

Next – 4. Filth from Bodily Emissions

 

Table of Contents – Ritual Purity Laws of Islam

 

Abbreviations used in footnotes:

QR:   Qur’an, with surahs (chapters) and ayahs (verses) numbered as in most modern translations, including those found here, here and here.

BK:    Hadith collection of al-Bukhari as found here (USC website) and here (ebook download). In a few instances, the hadiths on the USC website differ from those in the ebook download, either by having slightly different numbering of the hadiths or because the hadith appears only on the USC site and not in the ebook download. Such cases are noted in the footnotes by putting either “(USC)” or “(ebook)” after the relevant hadith number when it applies to only one of these two sources.

ML:    Hadith collection of Muslim as found here and here.

DJP:  The Distinguished Jurist’s Primer, by Ibn Rushd, translated by Imran Ahsan Khan Nyazee, published by Garnet Publishing Ltd, Reading, UK. Volume 1, 1994. Volume 2, 1996. Limited preview is available here (Volume 1) and here (Volume 2). Full text online and download for Volume 1 is here and here and for Volume 2 is here and here.

RT:    Reliance of the Traveller: A Classic Manual of Islamic Sacred Law by Ahmad ibn Naqib al-Misri, translated by Nuh Ha Mim Keller, revised edition 1994, published by Amana Publications, Beltsville, Maryland, USA. It can be downloaded as a pdf file from various websites such as this one.

SR:    al-Shafi‛i’s Risala: Treatise on the Foundations of Islamic Jurisprudence, translated by Majid Khadduri, Second Edition, published by The Islamic Texts Society. It can be downloaded here.

●  The sources cited are described on the page Source Texts Used for Laws of Islam.

 



[1] QR 74:4

[2] ML 23:4988, ML 23:4989, ML 23:4990, ML 23:4991-4992-4993-4994

[3] BK 8:74:311, BK 7:69:527, BK 7:69:528, ML 23:4987, ML 23:4995-4996-4997, ML 23:5000

[4] BK 7:69:510, BK 7:69:511, BK 7:69:527, BK 7:69:528, ML 23:4987-4988, ML 23:4990, ML 23:4991-4993-4994

[5] ML 23:5000

[6] BK 7:69:527, ML 23:4995-4996-4997

[7] ML 23:4991-4992-4993-4994

[8] ML 23:5044-5055, ML 23:5046-5047-5048, ML 23:5049

[9] BK 4:54:537, BK 7:71:673

[10] BK 1:4:236, BK 1:4:237, BK 7:67:446, BK 7:67:447, BK 7:67:448

[11] BK 7:69:529, BK 7:69:530, BK 7:69:531, BK 7:69:532, BK 7:69:533, ML 23:5014-5015-5016

[12] BK 1:4:156, BK 7:69:534, ML 23:5028

[13] BK 7:69:535, ML 23:5029, ML 23:5030-5031

[14] ML 23:5029

[15] QR 2:173, QR 5:3, QR 6:145, QR 16:115

[16] BK 3:34:438, ML 10:3840

[17] QR 5:90-91, BK 5:59:631, BK 5:59:632, BK 1:4:243, BK 3:43:644, BK 6:60:140, BK 6:60:141, BK 6:60:143, BK 6:60:144, BK 6:61:515, BK 7:69:485, BK 7:69:486, BK 7:69:487, BK 7:69:488, BK 7:69:489, BK 7:69:490, BK 7:69:491, BK 7:69:492a (USC), BK 7:69:493, BK 7:69:503, BK 7:69:505, BK f7:69:506, BK 7:69:526, BK 8:73:145, BK 9:89:284, BK 9:91:359, ML 10:3835, ML 10:3836-3837, ML 17:4226-4227, ML 17:4228-4229-4230, ML 17:4231, ML 23:4882, ML 23:4883, ML 23:4884-4885, ML 23:4886-4887, ML 23:4888, ML 23:4889, ML 23:4890, ML 23:4952, ML 23:4953, ML 23:4954, ML 23:4956, ML 23:4957-4958, ML 23:4959, ML 23:4962, ML 23:4963, ML 23:4964-4965, ML 23:4966, ML 26:5933-5934-5935, ML 43:7186

[18] BK 1:8:449, BK 3:34:297, BK 3:34:426, BK 3:34:429, BK 3:34:438, BK 5:59:590, BK 6:60:64, BK 6:60:65, BK 6:60:66, ML 10:3835, ML 10:3836-3837, ML 10:3840, ML 23:4975

[19] BK 5:59:531

[20] BK5:59:510, ML 21:4778

[21] ML 21:4777

[22] QR 16:14

[23] QR 35:12

[24] BK 4:52:226, BK 5:59:646, BK 5:59:647, BK 5:59:648, BK 7:67:401, BK 7:67:402, ML 21:4756, ML 21:4757, 21:4761

[25] BK 5:59:647, BK 5:59:648, BK 7:67:401, BK 7:67:402, , ML 21:4756, ML 21:4757

[26] ML 21:4756, ML 21:4757, ML 21:4761

[27] BK 5:59:648, BK 7:67:401

[28] BK 5:59:648, ML 21:4756

[29] QR 2:222

[30] ML 3:590

[31] BK 1:4:174

[32] BK 4:54:448, BK 4:54:450, BK 5:59:338, BK 4:54:539, BK 7:72:833, BK 7:72:843, ML 24:5246-5247, ML 24:5248, ML 24:5249, ML 24:5250-5251, ML 24:5254

[33] ML 24:5277-5278

[34] BK 1:9:486, BK 1:9:490, BK 1:9:493, BK 1:9:498, ML 4:1032-1033, ML 4:1034, ML 4:1038, ML 4:1039

[35] ML 4:1032-1033

[36] BK 1:9:472, ML 4:1019, ML 4:1020-1022

[37] BK 1:9:487-488, BK 1:9:489, BK 1:9:490, BK 1:9:493, BK 1:9:498, ML 4:1025-1026, ML 4:1027-1028, ML 4:1032-1033,ML 4:1034, ML 4:1037, ML 4:1038, ML 4:1039

[38] BK 1:9:490, BK 1:9:493, BK 1:9:498, ML 4:1032-1033, ML 4:1034, ML 4:1037, ML 4:1038, ML 4:1039

[39] BK 1:9:490, BK 1:9:491, BK 1:9:492, BK 1:9:493, BK 1:9:494, BK 1:9:498, ML 4:1035, ML 4:1036, ML 4:1037, ML 4:1038, ML 4:1039, ML 4:1040

[40] BK 1:9:495

[41] BK 1:9:487-488, ML 4:1024

[42] BK 1:9:487-488, ML 4:1023, ML 4:1024, ML 4:1025-1026, ML 4:1027-1028

[43] BK 1:11:606, BK 1:4:187, BK 1:8:373, BK 1:9:473, BK 1:9:474, BK 1:9:477, BK 1:9:478, BK 1:9:478, BK 1:9:480, BK 7:72:677, ML 4:1010, ML 4:1011, ML 4:1014, ML 4:1017

[44] ML 4:1015

[45] BK 1:9:485, ML 4:1006, ML 4:1009, ML 4:1034

[46] BK 1:8:422, BK 1:9:485, ML 4:1012, ML 4:1013

[47] ML 4:1007, ML 4:1008, ML 4:1032-1033

[48] ML 4:1032-1033, ML 4:1034, ML 4:1014

[49] ML 4:1032-1033

[50] BK 1:9:474, BK 1:9:478, ML 4:1017, ML 4:1032-1033, ML 4:1034     ML 4:1014

[51] BK 1:8:373, BK 7:72:677, ML 4:1015

[52] BK 1:8:373, BK 1:9:487-488, BK 7:72:677, ML 4:1015, ML 4:1017 ML 4:1023, ML 4:1024, ML 4:1025-1026, ML 4:1032-1033, ML 4:1034

[53] BK 1:9:487-488, ML 4:1024

[54] ML 4:1017, ML 4:1032-1033, ML 4:1034

[55] BK 1:4:173, ML 2:548

[56] ML 2:546

[57] ML 2:546-547, ML 2:550

[58] ML 2:549

[59] ML 2:551-552

[60] BK 3:39:515, BK 3:39:516, BK 4:54:541, BK 4:54:542, ML 10:3814, ML 10:3818, ML 10:3821, ML 10:3822, ML 10:3823, ML 10:3824-3825-3826, ML 10:3828-3829

[61] BK 3:39:515, BK 7:67:389, BK 7:67:390, BK 7:67:391, ML 10:3814, ML 10:3815, ML 10:3816, ML 10:3817, ML 10:3818, ML 10:3820, ML 10:3821, ML 10:3822, ML 10:3823, ML 10:3827

[62] BK 4:54:540, ML 2:551-552, ML 10:3809, ML 10:3810, ML 10:3811, ML 10:3812, ML 24:5248, ML 26: 5545

[63] ML 2:551-552, ML 10:3812

[64] ML 24:5248

[65] ML 2:551-552, ML 10:3812

[66] ML 10:3813

[67] BK 1:4:235, BK 1:7:332, BK 1:8:420, BK 1:8:421, ML 4:1068, ML 4:1069

[68] ML 4:1068, ML 4:1069

[69] ML 3:700-701

[70] BK 1:9:499

[71] ML 19:4421, ML 19:4422-4423

[72] BK 1:4:234, BK 5:59:505, BK 6:60:134, BK 7:71:590, BK 7:71:623, BK 8:82:794, BK 8:82:797, BK 9:83:37, ML 16:4130, ML 16:4131-4132-4133

[73] BK 7:71:589

[74] BK 2:24:577, BK 4:52:261, BK 8:82:796

[75] BK 7:71:672

[76] BK 2:24:569, BK 3:34:424, BK 7:67:439, BK 7:67:440, BK 8:78:677, ML 3:704, ML 3:705-706, ML 3:707, ML 3:708, ML 3:709

[77] BK 8:78:677, ML 3:704, ML 3:707, ML 3:710-711, ML 3:704, ML 3:707, ML 3:710-711

[78] BK 8:78:677

[79] ML 3:712, ML 3:713

[80] DJP 1 (Volume 1, page 1), note by a 20th century commentator in RT e1.2 (page 52)

[81] DJP 17.1 (Volume 1, pages 563-567), RT j16.6 (page 363)

[82] DJP 1.4.1 (Volume 1, pages 79-81), DJP 1.4.3 (Volume 1, pages 88-89), DJP 2.2.5 (Volume 1, pages 128-129), RT f4.1 (page 117), RTf4.7 (pages 118-119), RT f9.13 (pages 152-153)

[83] RT f17.5 (page 200)

[84] DJP 1.4.2.6 (Volume 1, page 87-88)

[85] RT f4.3-f4.4 (page 118)

[86] DJP 1.4.2 (Volume 1, page 81)

[87] DJP 1.4.2 (Volume 1, page 81)

[88] DJP 1.4.2 (Volume 1, page 81)

[89] DJP 1.4.2.1 (Volume 1, pages 81-83)

[90] RT e14.6 (3) (page 97)

[91] RT e14.1 (11)  (page 96)

[92] DJP 1.4.2.1 (Volume 1, pages 81-83), DJP 17.1 (Volume 1, pages 563-567), RT e14.1 (11) (page 96)

[93] RT e14.1 (11)  (page 96)

[94] DJP 17.1 (Volume 1, pages 563-567)

[95] DJP 1.4.2.2 (Volume 1, pages 83-84)

[96] DJP 1.4.2 (Volume 1, page 81)

[97] DJP 17.1 (Volume 1, pages 563-567)

[98] DJP 17.1 (Volume 1, pages 563-567)

[99] DJP 1.4.2.4 (Volume 1, pages 85-86)

[100] DJP 17.1 (Volume 1, pages 563-567)

[101] DJP 1.4.2.4 (Volume 1, pages 85-86)

[102] RT e14.1 (pages 95-96)

[103] DJP 17.2 (Volume 1, pages 577-578)

[104] DJP 17.1 (Volume 1, pages 563-567)

[105] DJP 1.1.3.4 (Volume 1, pages 25-29)

[106] DJP 1.1.3.4 (Volume 1, pages 25-29)

[107] DJP 17.1.1 (Volume 1, pages 567-569)

[108] DJP 1.1.3.4 (Volume 1, pages 25-29)

[109] RT e14.1 (pages 95-96)

[110] RT e14.7 (page 98)

[111] RT j16.5 (page 363)

[112] RT e14.2 (page 96)

[113] RT e14.5 (page 97)

[114] DJP 1.4.2.3 (Volume 1, Pages 84-85)

[115] RT e14.6 (pages 97-98)

[116] RT e14.6 (pages 97-98)

[117] RT f17.5 (page 200)

[118] DJP 24.2.1 (Volume 2, pages 155-157)

[119] RT k2.1 (page 381)

[120] RT k2.2 (page 382)

[121] RT k2.3 (page 382)

[122] RT k4.10 (page 391)